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Monarch Butterfly

Monarch migrations

Each fall, millions of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus plexippus) migrate to the sacred fir (Abies religiosa) forests of central Mexico. Monarch butterflies have a very narrow temperature range in which they can live and reproduce, causing them to seek the cooler temperatures and increased food available in northern locales (such as Toledo) in the spring, and repeat the migration south in the fall when frosts eliminate their food sources. This migration takes five or more generations each year. In other words, it may be the great-great-great grandchildren of the spring monarchs that return to Mexico the following fall. This migration of 3,000+ miles is the largest and longest migration by invertebrates on earth, and it is unique to monarchs east of the Rocky Mountain Range. Although monarch populations west of the Rockies do migrate (to California and isolated non-migratory populations in Florida, Cuba, Hawaii, New Zealand and Australia), none occur in such vast quantities as the eastern North American monarchs.

As the daylight hours decreased and temperatures cool, the youngest generation of butterflies sensed that it was time to migrate. The Toledo Zoo released more than 100 of these monarchs into the wild to complete their migration to Mexico.

In addition, partnering with Monarch Watch at the University of Kansas, each monarch released carried a specially designed tag. As the released monarchs make their migration, citizen scientists who spot the tagged butterflies can email or call and the university to report the unique ID that each butterfly carries. This not only allows us to track our butterflies to Mexico, but it provides researchers with valuable information about the timing and direction of the great monarch migration

Monarch conservation

Unfortunately, over the past 15 years, monarch populations have shown huge declines as illegal logging threatens their overwintering range, and milkweed (the monarch host plant, Asclepias spp.) becomes increasingly rare across their northern summer range. Monarchs face numerous challenges, whether it be global climate change that results in earlier warming, more severe temperature extremes or the increased reliance on herbicides across the American Midwest which destroys the milkweed plants that the monarchs rely on to survive.

In recognition of the monarchs’ plight, the Toledo Zoo has started breeding the butterflies for release. Early in the summer of 2014, biologists collected 25 eggs from milkweed plants at the Zoo and reared the butterflies on milkweed grown by Wild Toledo staff. These individuals were then bred and their resulting offspring reared.

Learn to Tag

By tagging the monarch butterflies, the Toledo Zoo can determine how many butterflies made it through the migration and where they ended up.  Researchers in Mexico recover the butterflies, look at the tags and upload that information on to a database.  Watch the video to learn how biologists at the Toledo Zoo tag monarch butterflies in preparation for their release in the fall.